Black Indians United
Though it is sure to evoke certain curiosity and questions, considering the reasons Ethnic (Black) Indigenous Native Americans and Freedmen retain and maintain information on the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Secretary of State Consular Services and Department of Indian Affairs, there is a simple answer;
For most of their enigmatic historic Tribal existence, the Nations of the 5 Civilized Tribes, their Ethnic Allies and Nationalized Refugees from vanquished tribes, have resided as Sovereign Nations, and Protectorates with Diplomatic Ambassadors, Peace Chiefs and Representatives from a variety of ancestral inhabitations or historic Native Dominions, Colonies (including Crown Colonies), Commonwealths, Territories and Republics.
Their colonies were located in ancient California (Alta and Baja), Mississippi (Kushtushka), Alabama (Mabila), Georgia, Sonora-(New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma-parts of New Spain), Mishongnovi, Tatil Coya, Coahuila (Coahuila y Tejas; at Hacienda El Nacimiento ‘El Nacimiento de los Negroes‘-Rio Grande District, State of Coahuila), La Florida, Carolina, Indian Territory, and within the domain of the Republic of Texas, which encompassed an area that included all of the present Texas, as well as parts of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. We must also include Anahuac, Texas, the ‘Gulf of Mexico’ extension of Texcoco de Mora (and Anahuac, Utah).
Texas was annexed by the United States of America, December 29, 1845, as the 28 U.S. State.
The Ethnic (Black) Indigenous Native Americans are the link and bridge cultures of the diffused diaspora of DNA mitochondrial Eve.
The Department of Foreign Affairs had it’s name changed to the U.S. Department of State on September 15, 1789 when Congress passed “An Act to provide for the safe keeping of the Acts, Records, and Seal of the United States, and for other purposes.” It changed because certain domestic duties were assigned to the agency. These included:
Receipt, publication, distribution, and preservation of the laws of the United States;
Preparation, sealing, and recording of the commissions of Presidential appointees
Preparation and authentication of copies of records and authentication of copies under the Department's seal;
Custody of the Great Seal of the United States;
Custody of the records of the former Secretary of the Continental Congress, except for those of the Treasury and War Departments.
Other domestic duties that the Department was responsible for at various times included issuance of patents on inventions, publication of the census returns, management of the mint, control of copyrights, and regulation of immigration. Most domestic functions have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain in the Department are: storage and use of the Great Seal, performance of protocol functions for the White House, drafting of certain Presidential proclamations, and replies to public inquiries.
Secretary of State Consular Services: Republic of Texas-Washington on the Brazos
The agency also maintained Secretary of State Consular Correspondence with Texan and foreign consuls was created in the course of conducting normal consular business, particularly the regulation of commercial ties between Texas and other nations. These records consist chiefly of letters and reports received in the Department of State of the Republic of Texas from agents and consuls, as well as letter books of consular correspondence, and registers of certificates, affidavits, and fees. The records date 1836-1850, 1873-1875, bulk 1836-1846.
Correspondence with Texan and foreign consuls was created in the course of conducting normal consular business, particularly the regulation of commercial ties between Texas and other nations. These records consist chiefly of letters and reports received in the Department of State of the Republic of Texas from agents and consuls, as well as letter books of consular correspondence, and registers of certificates, affidavits, and fees. The records date 1836-1850, 1873-1875, bulk 1836-1846.
Some correspondence is from Texan consuls in Great Britain (cities of London, Liverpool), France (cities of Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Le Havre), and other countries (cities of Amsterdam, Bremen, Calcutta), but the majority comes from the Texan consulate office in New Orleans. Other U.S. cities with Texas consular offices included New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Cincinnati, Detroit,
Mobile, Natchez, and Natchitoches. The finding aid contains a full list of Texan consuls, with dates of appointment, arranged by city to which they were assigned. Also included in these records is correspondence of the Department of State of the Republic of Texas with foreign consuls, all located in Galveston (1841-1845).
Countries with consuls in Texas were the United States, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the Hanseatic League or Hanse towns. Subjects of both kinds of correspondence deal generally with the activities of Texan consuls in attempting to obtain loans, supplies, and favorable commercial relations from other nations, complaints of other nations against the Republic, and attitudes toward the Republic in other countries. Correspondents include William Bryan, David G. Burnet, Thomas Toby, Robert Triplett, Robert Irion, and Anson Jones. Also included are four letter books of consular correspondence, 1837-1845; three registers of certificates, affidavits, and fees from New Orleans, 1837-1841, giving name of person, service rendered by the consul, and fee; and a file regarding the efforts of the widow of Thomas Toby, agent for the Republic, 1836-1838.
The First U.S. Treaty with a non-European nation was the Treaty of Friendship and Amity signed with Morocco on June 23, 1786. Thomas Barclay, the U.S. Consul General in Paris, negotiated it. It was valid for fifty years and was renewed in 1837.
Ethnic (Black) Indigenous Native Americans of the 5 Civilized Tribes, Freedmen and their Allies have a genuine interest in the records of the U.S. Secretary of State Consular Services, because it maintains records on the Maritime Treaties with Morocco (and the Barbary States). The Moorish subjects of a Prince of Morocco established residence in Colonies within the aboriginal Indian Country among numerous Tribal Nations (including those of the 5 Civilized Tribes). State governments, such as South Carolina and Delaware kept records on pleadings for exemption from Slave Laws due to their status.
The U.S. Secretary of State Consular Services: Republic of Texas-Washington on the Brazos Consular Agent William Schuchardt (Commercial Agent at Piedras Negras) and others dispatched “to parlay” with the Kickapoos and Black Seminoles in Mexico in the 1870s.
“The Texas Department of the United States Army, in 1870, after letters initiated by U.S. Consul Agent William Schuchardt promised the scouts their pay and a land grant. Return to Texas, they were told, and help us fight Indians and we will provide you with land to raise your families.” The remnant of the Seminole Negro Scouts, being induced by Consular Agent Schuchardt to cross over into the U.S. side of the border into Texas. Clearly, the majority of Seminole Negro Scouts were confined on Fort Clark, and Fort Duncan.
Serving in one of the most effective fighting forces ever fielded in the State of Texas, these Seminole-Negro Scouts of the U.S. Cavalry fought the Apaches and Comanches from the 1870s until the early 1900s. Led by the very able Lieutenant Bullis, both officer and men could stay in the field for months at a time. (While Indians could be legally hired as scouts, Blacks could not, and so developed the unit's name official name: Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts.’
Civilian Ethnic Seminoles (Non-Warriors, Non-Scouts, such as Elders, women and children settled outside of Fort Clark at Las Moras Creek). When Fort Clark closed in 1947, however, most of the Seminoles still living there were exiled, evicted and required to leave.
The Marshall Court ruled that while Native American Tribes were sovereign nations (Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831), state laws had no force on tribal lands (Worcestor v. Georgia, 1832).
A Congressional Act on July 9, 1832 created the office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the War Department, to have the direction and management of “all matters arising out of Indian relations.” The Office of Indian Affairs remained subject to the orders of the Secretary of War and the President from that time until 1849 when it was transferred by Congressional enactment from the War Department to the new Department of the Interior.
Following the removal of the Five Civilized Tribes Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Cherokee and Chickasaw-from their old home lands in the Southeastern States to new country in the Indian Territory, an agent was appointed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to reside with each of these tribes. His duties were manifold in that he was “to counsel with them concerning the performance of treaty obligations, all problems arising in their new environment, and to report annually to the department of Indian Affairs on their condition and progress.
In turn he received reports from the missionaries, teachers, and “others having duties of a public nature to perform in the Indian country.” Includes Agents and Superintendents for Removal.
Spain Established The Earliest Board of Indian Affairs
In 1493, Spain formed a Board for the Direction of Indian Affairs, a new department of Administration for expedient effectiveness to all the measures of colonization, control commercial regulations with Natives of America. At its head was Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca. He managed the Indian Affairs of Spain/ “There has been an inclination to derive profit through Indian trade and management” by those first coming in contact with the tribes, desiring to share in their bounties or in some way reap the full advantages of the situation.”
Ethnic (Black) Native American Diplomats In The Cherokee Nation
French John, son of Old Hop. He was an Ethnic (Black) French-Canadian Cherokee Diplomat in the Cherokee Nation,working in service to Old Hop and his Council. He was associated with John Lantaniack of Fort Toulouse.
French John was also associated with Savannah Tom and the "Thigh". They maintained a strong French connection with the Cherokees.
In addition to Fort Toulouse, he conducted negotiations at New Orleans and Mobile.
Capee Capee, another son of Old Hop. He was also an Ethnic (Black) French-Canadian Cherokee Diplomat in the Cherokee Nation, working in service to Old Hop and his Council. He was also record by Euro-Historians as a Free Moor among the French.